Part 1. Locating Types and Sources of Information & Existing Knowledge

Part 1. Locating Types and Sources of Information & Existing Knowledge

(30 points total)

 

Instructions

First, in the space below, specify the social work practice question that you plan to address this semester. The question you selected should be ONE of the four practice questions that you formulated in Part 3 of Assignment 1, with possible refinements based on your expanding knowledge of the science of social work. Feel free to revise your question as needed.  It is strongly suggested that you choose the practice question you formulated with regard to the effectiveness of an intervention, program or policy since Assignment 3 (the subsequent assignment) is more directly aligned with the body of literature that evaluates the effectiveness of intervention. Please follow the direction of your instructor regarding the selection of a practice question. They/She/He may ask you to address a particular type of practice question at their discretion.

 


 

Social Work Practice Question (please specify in the space below):

What factors increase the likelihood of mental illnesses amongst the elderly population in the United States?

 

 

Complete the rest of this assignment about the practice question you specified above. To complete the assignment, you will need to conduct a literature search to locate different types and sources of information and existing knowledge related to the practice question that you formulated. Use APA formatting for references mentioned in your responses.  The text-fill boxes will not easily allow hanging indents, so the paragraph structure does not have to include the hanging indent within the fillable boxes.  All other aspects of APA 6th edition will be expected (correct content, order and online identifier included).

 

  1. Professional Organizations – Provide the name and link for a website for a social work professionalorganizations related directly to your practice question. Please note that professional organizations are not “agencies” or service providers. (5 POINTS)
Name: geriatric mental health foundation

 

Link: https://www.aagponline.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=GeriatricMentalHealthFoundation&category=About%20Us

 

 

 

Policy – Find and briefly describe a federal (i.e., national) or state level policy (i.e., law) related directly to your practice question.  (5 POINTS)

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Policy: Affordable Care Act (2010).

 

Description: The affordable care act of 2010 aims at making health insurance schemes more affordable for the vulnerable. Under this act, the main aim is to ensure that the elderly can access affordable health insurance, thus solving the existing issues where private insurance is expensive or is hard to obtain for the mentally ill (Protection and Act, 2010).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Publication – Provide the name and link of a peer-review journal related directly to your practice question. (5 POINTS)
Name: Mental Health Treatment Seeking Among Older Adults with Depression: The Impact of Stigma and Race (Conner et al, 2010)

 

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2875324/

 

  1. Theoretical/Conceptual Knowledge – Locate a book or book chapter that discusses theories, models or frameworks (not empirical research) related directly to your practice question. Provide the name of the theory, model or framework, and the citation for the book or book chapter. Also briefly discuss how the theory, model or framework enhanced some aspect of YOUR conceptual understanding of YOUR practice question. (5 POINTS)
Name of Theory, Model or Framework: Theory of Gerotranscendence

 

Citation:   Tornstam, L. (2005). Gerotranscendence: A developmental theory of positive aging. Springer Publishing Company.

 

Discussion:      This theory examines various developmental changes that determine life satisfaction on an aging individual. Thus a geotranscedent individual will start to view the world fundamentally different from others while redefining relationships.  This is witnessed by being choosy on social activities and less occupied of oneself.  Individuals lose interest in material things with positive solitude becoming the new norm,   increased affinity towards past generations, poor social interaction, a redefinition of death, space and life as well as increased feelings of cosmic communion. These attributes thus explain the manner under which the elderly loose social connection with fellow people thereby becoming lonely and less interactive.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Statistical Epidemiological Data – List two (2) important statistics related directly to your social work practice question. One statistic should be a point-in-time statistic related to the current size or scope of the problem, population or outcome addressed by your practice question. The other statistic should be an historical or trend statistic related to the size or scope of the problem, population or outcome addressed by your practice question. Please provide the citation for the source of the statistics. (10 POINTS)
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  1. Current Point-in-Time Statistic:
Statistic: In the United States of America, adults aged between the age of 50 and 64 years undergoing a lifetime diagnosis of depression was at 19.3%   while those above 65 years were at 10.5%.

 

Citation:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Association of Chronic Disease Directors. (2005). The State of Mental Health and Aging in America Issue Brief 1: What Do the Data Tell Us? Atlanta, GA: National Association of Chronic Disease Directors; 2008.

 

 

In 2006, adults age 50–64 reported more current depression and lifetime diagnosis of depression than adults age 65 or older

  1. Historical or Trend Statistic:
 Statistic: The life depressive symptoms experienced by elderly Americans decreased  from 1998 t0 2008

 

 

Citation: m Zivin, K., Pirraglia, P. A., McCammon, R. J., Langa, K. M., & Vijan, S. (2013). Trends in depressive symptom burden among older adults in the United States from 1998 to 2008. Journal of general internal medicine, 28(12), 1611-1619.

 

 

 

Part 2. Locating Empirical Research Articles and Studies (20 POINTS)

 

For this section, you are asked to locate four (4) recent articles (within the last 7 years) that describe different types of research studies related to your practice question. Each article should be from a peer-review research journal that has impact factors. For each article, provide (a) the full citation for the article you reviewed, (b) a brief explanation of how you determined that the article was describing the type of study specified, and (c) BOTH the impact factor for the journal in which the article you reviewed was published AND your assessment of the quality/rigo of the journal based on the impact factor. To locate the impact factor, refer to the journal in which the article was published or to the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) website.

 

  1. An article that describes a study that utilized QUALITATIVE research methods. (5 POINTS)
Citation:  Reynolds, K., Pietrzak, R. H., El-Gabalawy, R., Mackenzie, C. S., & Sareen, J. (2015). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in US older adults: findings from a nationally representative survey. World Psychiatry, 14(1), 74-81.

 

How You Determined that the Study was Qualitative:

The study was considered qualitative since face to face interviews were undertaken by interviewers from the U.S Census Bureau.  In the interview, the interviewees were asked to record their informed consent which would be later analyzed.

 

 

Journal Impact Factor AND Your Assessment of Quality/Rigor:

The article is cited 84 times in google scholar. Additionally, it is hosted in the united states national library of medicine under the national institute of health implying that it is approved for use by government agencies.

 

 

  1.  An article that describes a study that utilized PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS METHODS. (5 POINTS)
Citation:  Conwell, Y., Van Orden, K., & Caine, E. D. (2011). Suicide in older adults. Psychiatric Clinics, 34(2), 451-468.

 

How You Determined that the Study Utilized Pre-Experimental Design Methods:

This study was considered to have used pre-experimental design methods since it did not carry a comparative group or a control group for persons committing suicide.

 

 

Journal Impact Factor AND Your Assessment of Quality/Rigor:  the journal impact for this research is high this is due to a high number of citations. An s such, it is cited at 248 times in google scholar.   Secondly, it is highly credible being hosted in the US medical library.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. An article that describes a study that utilized QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL/CORRELATIONAL DESIGN METHODS. (5 POINTS)
Citation: Niccoli, T., & Partridge, L. (2012). Ageing as a risk factor for disease. Current Biology, 22(17), R741-R752.

 

How You Determined that the Study Utilized Quasi-experimental/Correlational Design Methods: This study aimed at determining whether advanced age had any correlation with mental illnesses. It thus utilized age data against disease data across several continents to establish whether a common trend was observable to affirm whether a correlation existed between the two variables or not.

 

 

 

Journal Impact Factor AND Your Assessment of Quality/Rigor:

The journal impact factor of this article is high. Firstly, the article is cited 356 times in google scholar. Secondly, it is hosted under the science direct website which is a highly reliable source of research articles.

 

 

 

  1. An article that describes a study that utilized EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN METHODS. (5 POINTS)
Citation: Mandolikar, R. Y., Naik, P., Akram, M. S., & Nirgude, A. S. (2017). Depression among the elderly: A cross-sectional study in an urban community. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 6, 318-22.

 

How You Determined that the Study Utilized Experimental Design Methods: the study utilized experimental methods whereby a geriatric depression scale was used to access 7 characteristics of depression among the aged population.  This assessment was carried by the interviewer who determines the responses of the respondents do determine cognitive impairment, impaired motivation, and low self-esteem, lack of future orientation and feelings of discrimination.

 

 

Journal Impact Factor AND Your Assessment of Quality/Rigor: the impact factor for this article is low since it’s only cited three times in google scholar. However, we can see that it’s a recent article and has been done in Yenepoya medical college as a research article implying that its impact factor may improve over time.

 

 

 

 

 

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Part 3. CriticalLY Appraising Empirical research and research evidence

(50 points total)

 

Instructions

For this part of the assignment, you will be asked to critically appraise one of the empirical research articles that you identified in the previous section. Your appraisal will focus on the on the quality of methods used in the study, including the design, measurement, and sampling methods.

 

Select ONE article from Part 2 of this assignment to critically appraise. The article you select should relate directly to your practice question and offer the strongest level of evidence for answering your practice question. Please note that additional guidelines for selecting an article will be discussed in class. Below, indicate which article you selected.

 

  • Article #1 – Qualitative Methods
  • Article #2 – Pre-experimental Design Methods
  • Article #3 – Quasi-experimental/Correlational Design Methods
  • Article #4 – Experimental Design Methods

 

Answer the following questions based on the article you selected and the study it describes. Answers should be succinct (a few sentences to a paragraph) and demonstrate your ability to apply key concepts and terminology.

 

  1. In relation to your practice question, how strong is the LEVEL OF EVIDENCE offered in the article that you selected? Consider the type of practice question you are addressing, evidence/research hierarchies, and the impact factor of the journal in which the article you selected was published. Briefly explain your answer. (5 POINTS)
Article 1

There is a strong level of evidence that the prevalence of mental illnesses among the elderly in the United States is affected by personality disorders and substance abuse.  This evidence is supported by a qualitative study undertaken through interviewing. Additionally, data from the national epidemiological survey is employed to  ascertain the impact of the factors studied

 

 

 

  1. Using appropriate terminology and notation, state and briefly describe the design of the study. As part of your description, explain the meaning of the notation. (5 POINTS)
 

A cross-sectional study design has been employed in this study.  This is because this study is aimed at determining the prevalence of mental illness among the elderly who have substance abuse and personality disorders.

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

  1. Briefly discuss how the study’s INTERNAL VALIDITY was increased by its design, measurement, and sampling methodology. As part of your discussion, state and describe specific threats to internal validity that were minimized by the study’s methodology. (10 POINTS)
 

The internal validity of the study was enhanced by using data from the US Census Bureau.  The research protocol was approved for ethical compliance by US office of management and budget as well as the US census bureau. Additionally, alcohol use disorders and associated disabilities interview schedule (AUDA-DIS-4) which is the standard for accessing psychiatric disorders.  The biggest threat to validity is failing to determine the presence of mental illness among participants; hence, the standard system used by the government was adopted.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. State and briefly describe the major THREATS TO INTERNAL VALIDITY that were not minimized by the study’s methodology. As part of your description, briefly explain how the remaining threats negatively impacted the researcher’s ability to achieve their/her/his research goals. (10 POINTS)
 

The study examined psychiatric disorders taking into account those which were not previously documented using the government psychiatric standards. It thus meant that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among some old population may have been exaggerated since a broader categorization of psychiatric diseases was employed. Secondly, institutionalized adults were not generalized in the findings. Thirdly, hierarchical rules were not used to diagnose psychiatric disorders, an aspect that should be used in epidemiological surveys.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Based on the overall INTERNAL VALIDITY of the study described in the article that you selected, how strong is the QUALITY OF EVIDENCE offered for answering your practice question? Briefly explain your answer. (5 POINTS)
The quality of evidence is high despite the limitations on the study. This is ascertained by the findings which are consistent with similar studies on the prevalence of mental disorders among the elderly.  This is supported by data obtained from the study and the data obtained from the US census bureau.

 

 

 

  1. Briefly describe the researcher’s target population for the study and how the study’s EXTERNAL VALIDITY was impacted positively or negatively by its sampling methodology. As part of your discussion, state and describe threats to external validity that were and were not minimized by the sampling methodology. (10 POINTS)
 

The target population for this research is adults aged above 55 years. The external validity of this study was appositively affected by the sampling methodology used. Firstly, all races were considered equal and all states in America were represented. Indeed, a random sampling adopted ensured that any member of the study population had equal chances to be selected. The DSM4 criteria adopted for studying mental illnesses may have inflated the cases.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Based on the EXTERNAL VALIDITY of the study described in the article that you selected, how APPLICABLE is the evidence to the population(s) you are interested in working with? Briefly explain your answer and be sure to state the population(s) you are interested in working with. (5 POINTS)

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The evidence form this study is highly applicable to the aging US population. Most notably, there is a high number of aging populations above 65 years which falls within the brackets studied in the research.  This research will be employed to a population of 3000 people.

 

 

 

 

Based on the empirical evidence presented in the ONE research article that you appraised, what is the answer to your practice question?

Based on this respect, mental illnesses among the elderly are caused by   substance abuse and personality disorders.

 

 

 

 

 

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Association of Chronic Disease Directors. (2005). The State of Mental Health and Aging in America Issue Brief 1: What Do the Data Tell Us? Atlanta, GA: National Association of Chronic Disease Directors; 2008.

Conner, K. O., Copeland, V. C., Grote, N. K., Koeske, G., Rosen, D., Reynolds III, C. F., & Brown, C. (2010). Mental health treatment seeking among older adults with depression: the impact of stigma and race. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry18(6), 531-543.

Conwell, Y., Van Orden, K., & Caine, E. D. (2011). Suicide in older adults. Psychiatric Clinics, 34(2), 451-468.

m Zivin, K., Pirraglia, P. A., McCammon, R. J., Langa, K. M., & Vijan, S. (2013). Trends in depressive symptom burden among older adults in the United States from 1998 to 2008. Journal of general internal medicine, 28(12), 1611-1619.

Mandolikar, R. Y., Naik, P., Akram, M. S., & Nirgude, A. S. (2017). Depression among the elderly: A cross-sectional study in an urban community. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 6, 318-22.

Niccoli, T., & Partridge, L. (2012). Ageing as a risk factor for disease. Current Biology, 22(17), R741-R752.

Protection, P., & Act, A. C. (2010). Patient protection and affordable care act. Public law111(48), 759-762.

Reynolds, K., Pietrzak, R. H., El-Gabalawy, R., Mackenzie, C. S., & Sareen, J. (2015). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in US older adults: findings from a nationally representative survey. World Psychiatry, 14(1), 74-81.

Tornstam, L. (2005). Gerotranscendence: A developmental theory of positive aging. Springer Publishing Company.

 

 

 

 

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